A WORLD TRANSFORMED DURING THE LIFETIME OF IGNATIUS LOYOLA
1453 The Muslim Turks conquer Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Empire.
632 Mohammed dies. Until the rise of Islam, the whole of the Near East and Middle East,
along with North Africa, had been Christian.
711-1492 Most of Spain and Portugal was under Muslim rule by 1031. Christians, Jews and Muslims lived together in relative harmony.
1469 Queen Isabella of Castile-Léon marries Ferdinand of Aragon, creating the modern state of Spain.
1481 The Inquisition established in Castile to deal with false converts among Jews.
1483 Martin Luther born.
1485 Katharine of Aragon born to Ferdinand and Isabella, is aunt of Charles V.
1491 Ignatius (Íñigo) de Loyola born.
1492 Grenada, the last Muslim stronghold, conquered by Ferdinand and Isabella. J
Jews given four months to accept conversion or expulsion.
1492 Columbus missioned to find an eastern route to the Indies
so that the Turks could be attacked from the rear; he lands in the West “Indies”.
1492 A Spaniard Roderigo Borja (Borgia) becomes Pope Alexander VI (dies 1503)
1499 Katharine of Aragon (aged 14) sails to England.
1502 Katharine marries Arthur, Prince of Wales, who dies four months later.
She becomes the first wife of Henry VIII. She maintains their marriage is valid.
1502 Unconverted Muslims expelled from Spain to North Africa.
1513 Niccolo Machiavelli publishes The Prince.
1517 Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the church door in Wittemberg.
1529 The Turks besiege Vienna.
1530 Ignatius arrives in Paris.
1534 The English church breaks with Rome.
1534 Ignatius and the first companions pronounce vows at Montmartre, Paris.
1540 Pope Paul III permits the formation of a new religious order,
the Company of Jesus (The Jesuits).
1541 Ignatius reluctantly accepts to be General Superior of the Order.
1545 The long-delayed General Council opens at Trent.
1548 Two Latin translations of the Spiritual Exercises approved by Paul III.
1556 July 31, Ignatius dies in Rome at age 64.